Q: Performance of join vs embedded query for simple queries?

От: mark@mark.mielke.cc
Тема: Q: Performance of join vs embedded query for simple queries?
Дата: ,
Msg-id: 20060818003326.GA11682@mark.mielke.cc
(см: обсуждение, исходный текст)
Ответы: Re: Q: Performance of join vs embedded query for simple queries?  (Tom Lane)
Список: pgsql-performance


I have two simple queries that do what I believe to be the exact same
thing. I was surprised to see a reliable, and what I consider to be
significant (although not problematic for my application) difference
in execution time. It hints to me that PostgreSQL may be missing an
optimization opportunity? This is on PostgreSQL 8.1.4.

For a quick summary of the relationships:

I have a 79 row "system" table that describes each ClearCase system.
ClearCase uses uuid to uniquely identify database objects across the
life of the object. For this table, I store uid as a varchar(80), and
have a unique index on it:

eudb=> \d sm_system
                                        Table "public.sm_system"
   Column    |          Type          |                            Modifiers
-------------+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------
 system_dbid | integer                | not null default nextval('sm_system_system_dbid_seq'::regclass)
 type        | character varying(10)  | not null
 uid         | character varying(200) | not null
 name        | character varying(200) | not null
 owner       | character varying(80)  | not null
Indexes:
    "sm_system_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (system_dbid) CLUSTER
    "sm_system_type_key" UNIQUE, btree ("type", uid)
Check constraints:
    "sm_system_type_check" CHECK ("type"::text = 'NEU'::text OR "type"::text = 'PLS'::text)

I have a 339,586 row "change" table that describes each ClearCase
activity. Each activity has a name that should be unique, but may not
be unique across time. Uniqueness is relative to the system that
contains it.

                                             Table "public.sm_change"
     Column     |              Type              |                            Modifiers
----------------+--------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------
 change_dbid    | integer                        | not null default nextval('sm_change_change_dbid_seq'::regclass)
 system_dbid    | integer                        | not null
 stream_dbid    | integer                        | not null
 uid            | character varying(200)         | not null
 name           | character varying(200)         | not null
 status         | character varying(20)          | not null
 owner          | character varying(80)          | not null
 target         | integer                        |
 creationtime   | timestamp(0) without time zone | not null
 submissiontime | timestamp(0) without time zone | not null
 comments       | text                           |
 elements       | text                           |
Indexes:
    "sm_change_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (change_dbid) CLUSTER
    "sm_change_system_dbid_key" UNIQUE, btree (system_dbid, uid)
    "sm_change_name_key" btree (lower(name::text))
    "sm_change_stream_dbid_key" btree (stream_dbid)
    "sm_change_target_key" btree (target)
Foreign-key constraints:
    "sm_change_stream_dbid_fkey" FOREIGN KEY (stream_dbid) REFERENCES sm_stream(stream_dbid)
    "sm_change_system_dbid_fkey" FOREIGN KEY (system_dbid) REFERENCES sm_system(system_dbid)
    "sm_change_target_fkey" FOREIGN KEY (target) REFERENCES sm_change(change_dbid)


One of the made up queries that I played with was a lookup on the system uuid, and the
activity name. This is the one that I noticed the timing difference:

neudb=> select uid, name from sm_change where system_dbid = (select system_dbid from sm_system where uid =
'2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da')and lower(name) = lower('markm-Q00855572'); 
                   uid                    |      name
------------------------------------------+-----------------
 ff733174.6c7411d8.900c.00:06:5b:b3:db:28 | markm-Q00855572
(1 row)

Time: 1.242 ms


The 1.242 ms is pretty stable. 1.226 ms -> 1.248 ms over 5 runs.

Then we have:

neudb=> select sm_change.uid, sm_change.name from sm_change join sm_system using (system_dbid) where sm_system.uid =
'2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da'and lower(sm_change.name) = lower('markm-Q00855572'); 
                   uid                    |      name
------------------------------------------+-----------------
 ff733174.6c7411d8.900c.00:06:5b:b3:db:28 | markm-Q00855572
(1 row)

Time: 1.500 ms


This time is less stable - it runs from 1.394 ms -> 1.561 ms over 5 runs.

As I mentioned - for my application, I don't really care. If it took
10 ms or more, I wouldn't care. But the difference in time bothered me.
So, here are the query plans that PostgreSQL selected for me:


neudb=> explain analyze select uid, name from sm_change where system_dbid = (select system_dbid from sm_system where
uid= '2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da') and lower(name) = lower('markm-Q00855572'); 
                                                          QUERY PLAN

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Index Scan using sm_change_name_key on sm_change  (cost=2.99..7.82 rows=1 width=80) (actual time=0.322..0.328 rows=1
loops=1)
   Index Cond: (lower((name)::text) = 'markm-q00855572'::text)
   Filter: (system_dbid = $0)
   InitPlan
     ->  Seq Scan on sm_system  (cost=0.00..2.99 rows=1 width=4) (actual time=0.052..0.106 rows=1 loops=1)
           Filter: ((uid)::text = '2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da'::text)
 Total runtime: 0.419 ms
(7 rows)

Time: 16.494 ms


neudb=> explain analyze select sm_change.uid, sm_change.name from sm_change join sm_system using (system_dbid) where
sm_system.uid= '2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da' and lower(sm_change.name) = lower('markm-Q00855572'); 
                                                             QUERY PLAN

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Nested Loop  (cost=0.00..7.83 rows=1 width=80) (actual time=0.099..0.159 rows=1 loops=1)
   Join Filter: ("outer".system_dbid = "inner".system_dbid)
   ->  Index Scan using sm_change_name_key on sm_change  (cost=0.00..4.83 rows=1 width=84) (actual time=0.053..0.059
rows=1loops=1) 
         Index Cond: (lower((name)::text) = 'markm-q00855572'::text)
   ->  Seq Scan on sm_system  (cost=0.00..2.99 rows=1 width=4) (actual time=0.030..0.077 rows=1 loops=1)
         Filter: ((uid)::text = '2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da'::text)
 Total runtime: 0.250 ms
(7 rows)

Time: 1.898 ms


I'm still learning how PostgreSQL works internally. My understanding
is that the above are essentially the same. The first finds the system
row using a sequential scan, then looks for the change row using the
index, filtering by the system value. The second finds the change rows
using the same index, expecting to find one row, and finding only one
row, and matches it up against the system row using a sequential scan.

So why does one reliably run faster than the other?

neudb=> prepare plan1 (varchar(80), varchar(80)) as select uid, name from sm_change where system_dbid = (select
system_dbidfrom sm_system where uid = $1) and lower(name) = lower($2); 

neudb=> prepare plan2 (varchar(80), varchar(80)) as select sm_change.uid, sm_change.name from sm_change join sm_system
using(system_dbid) where sm_system.uid = $1 and lower(sm_change.name) = lower($2); 

Now:

neudb=> execute plan1 ('2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da', 'markm-q00855572');
                   uid                    |      name
------------------------------------------+-----------------
 ff733174.6c7411d8.900c.00:06:5b:b3:db:28 | markm-Q00855572
(1 row)

Time: 0.794 ms


neudb=> execute plan2 ('2ff5942c.dd2911d5.ad56.08:00:09:fd:1b:da', 'markm-q00855572');
                   uid                    |      name
------------------------------------------+-----------------
 ff733174.6c7411d8.900c.00:06:5b:b3:db:28 | markm-Q00855572
(1 row)

Time: 0.715 ms


The numbers above don't mean anything. I ran both a few dozen times, and my conclusion
is that after the plan is prepared (I did explain analyze to ensure that the prepared
plans were the same as the dynamically generated plans), the times are the same. Both
ranged from 0.690 ms -> 0.850 ms. Timings at these resolutions are not so reliable. :-)

I think this means that the planner takes longer to figure out what to do about the
join, and that my writing the select out as an embedded select reduces the effort
required by the planner. This makes sense to me, except that I thought PostgreSQL
would convert back and forth between the two forms automatically. They are the same
query, are they not? Why wouldn't they both take longer, or both take shorter? What
if I invented a scenario where the difference in plans made a major difference,
such as making the system table much larger, still without an index? Should they
not both come up with the same plan - the better estimated plan?

Am I expecting too much? :-)

Cheers,
mark

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